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What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid

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Sunday, June 16, 2019

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What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid



Someone having a heart attack may experience any or all of the following:
  • Uncomfortable pressure
  • fullness or squeezing pain in the center of the chest
  • Discomfort or pain spreading beyond the chest to the shoulders, neck, jaw, teeth, or one or both arms, or occasionally upper abdomen
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
  • Sweating
  • Nausea

Heart attack symptoms

A heart attack occurs when there is no supply of blood to the heart. The blockage is most is due to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances, which form a plaque in the arteries that feed the heart. 



Many people think the warning signs of a heart attack are sudden, like a movie heart attack, where someone clutches his chest and falls over. A real heart attack may look and feel very different.


Common heart attack signs and symptoms include:


  • Pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back
  • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cold sweat
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness

Heart attack symptoms vary




Not everybody who have heart attacks have the same signs and symptoms. Some have slight pain; others have more excessive pain. Some don't have any symptoms; for others, the primary signal may be sudden cardiac arrest. However, the more symptoms you got, the greater are the chance you're having a coronary heart attack.


Some heart attack strike suddenly, but many people have warning signs and symptoms hours, days or perhaps weeks in advance. The earliest caution is probably recurrent chest pain or stress (angina) that's brought on by exertion and relieved by way of relaxation.which is caused by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the heart.

How to Stop Heart Attack Immediately



Put Time on Your Side: responding quickly can save lives. If given fast after signs, clot-busting and artery-establishing medications can prevent a coronary heart attack. The longer you wait for treatment, the more possibilities of survival goes down and damage to the heart is goes up. Most of the people who die from heart attacks do so within the first hour after symptoms begin.
What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid

What to Do Before Paramedics Arrive



  • Try to keep the person calm, and have them sit or lie down.
  • If the person is not allergic to aspirin, have them chew and swallow a baby aspirin. (It works faster when chewed and not swallowed whole.)
  • If the person stops breathing, you or someone else who’s qualified should perform CPR right away. If you don't know CPR, the 911 operator can help you until EMS personnel arrive.
  • Be Prepared

Nobody plans on having a coronary heart attack. It’s good to be prepared. Steps you can take before signs begin:

  • Memorize the list of heart attack symptoms and warning signs.
  • Remember that you need to call 911 within 5 minutes of when they begin.
  • Talk to family and friends about the warning signs and the importance of calling 911 immediately.
  • Know your risk factors and do what you can to reduce them.
  • Create a heart attack survival plan that includes information about medicines you’re taking, your allergies, your doctor's number, and people to contact in case you go to the hospital. Keep this information in your wallet.
  • Arrange to have someone care for your dependents if an emergency happens.
If you think someone is having a heart attack do this immediately to save a life:

Heart Attack Treatment First Aid



  • Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm.
  • Loosen any tight clothing.
  • Ask if the person takes any chest pain medicine, such as nitroglycerin, for a known heart condition, and help them take it.
  • If the pain does not go away promptly with rest or within 3 minutes of taking nitroglycerin, call for emergency medical help.
  • If the person is unconscious and unresponsive, call 911 (or your local emergency number), then begin CPR.
  • If an infant or child is unconscious and unresponsive, perform 1 minute of CPR, then call 911.

What to do if you or someone else may be having a heart attack

Call 911 or your local medical emergency number. Don't ignore or attempt to tough out the symptoms of a heart attack for more than five minutes. If you don't have access to emergency medical services, have a neighbor or a friend drive you to the nearest hospital. 



Drive yourself only as a last resort, and realize that it places you and others at risk when you drive under these circumstances.

Chew and swallow an aspirin, unless you are allergic to aspirin or have been told by your doctor never to take aspirin. But seek emergency help first, such as calling 911.



Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed. If you think you're having a heart attack and your doctor has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as directed. Do not take anyone else's nitroglycerin, because that could put you in more danger.

Begin CPR if the person is unconscious. If you're with a person who might be having a heart attack and he or she is unconscious, tell the 911 dispatcher or another emergency medical specialist. You may be advised to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If you haven't received CPR training, doctors recommend skipping mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and performing only chest compressions (about 100 per minute). The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.
If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available and the person is unconscious, begin CPR while the device is retrieved and set up. Attach the device and follow instructions that will be provided by the AED after it has evaluated the person's condition.

What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid

How to Prevent Congestive Heart Failure


Your lifestyle affects your heart health. 


The following steps can help you not only prevent but also recover from a heart attack:

Avoid smoke. The most important thing you can do to improve your heart's health is to not smoke. Also, avoid being around secondhand smoke. If you need to quit, ask your doctor for help.

Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. If one or both of these is high, your doctor can prescribe changes to your diet and medications. Ask your doctor how often you need to have your blood pressure and cholesterol levels monitored.

Get regular medical checkups. Some of the major risk factors for heart attack — high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes — cause no symptoms early on. Your doctor can perform tests to check for these conditions and help you manage them, if necessary.



Exercise regularly. Regular exercise helps improve heart muscle function after a heart attack and helps prevent a heart attack by helping you to control your weight, diabetes, cholesterol and blood pressure. Exercise needn't be vigorous. Walking 30 minutes a day, five days a week can improve your health.

Maintain a healthy weight. Excess weight strains your heart and can contribute to high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes.



Eat a heart-healthy diet. Saturated fat, trans fats and cholesterol in your diet can narrow arteries to your heart, and too much salt can raise blood pressure. Eat a heart-healthy diet that includes lean proteins, such as fish and beans, plenty of fruits and vegetables and whole grains.

Manage diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to your heart. Regular exercise, eating well and losing weight all help to keep blood sugar levels at more-desirable levels. Many people also need medication to manage their diabetes.

Control stress. Reduce stress in your day-to-day activities. Rethink workaholic habits and find healthy ways to minimize or deal with stressful events in your life.
If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.

Heart Attack Treatment at a Hospital


Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissue deteriorates or dies. Restoring blood flow quickly helps prevent heart damage.


Medications given to treat a heart attack at hospital might include:

Aspirin. The 911 operator might tell you to take aspirin, or emergency medical personnel might give you aspirin immediately. Aspirin reduces blood clotting, thus helping maintain blood flow through a narrowed artery.

Thrombolytics. These drugs, also called clotbusters, help dissolve a blood clot that's blocking blood flow to your heart. The earlier you receive a thrombolytic drug after a heart attack, the greater the chance you'll survive and have less heart damage.



Antiplatelet agents. Emergency room doctors may give you other drugs known as platelet aggregation inhibitors to help prevent new clots and keep existing clots from getting larger.
Other blood-thinning medications. You'll likely be given other medications, such as heparin, to make your blood less "sticky" and less likely to form clots. Heparin is given intravenously or by an injection under your skin.

Pain relievers. You might be given a pain reliever, such as morphine.
Nitroglycerin. This medication, used to treat chest pain (angina), can help improve blood flow to the heart by widening (dilating) the blood vessels.

Beta blockers. These medications help relax your heart muscle, slow your heartbeat and decrease blood pressure, making your heart's job easier. Beta blockers can limit the amount of heart muscle damage and prevent future heart attacks.
ACE inhibitors. These drugs lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart.
Statins. These drugs help control your blood cholesterol.
Surgical and other procedures

In addition to medications, you might have one of these procedures to treat your heart attack:

Coronary angioplasty and stenting. In this procedure, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), doctors insert a long, thin tube (catheter) that's passed through an artery in your groin or wrist to a blocked artery in your heart. If you've had a heart attack, this procedure is often done immediately after a cardiac catheterization, a procedure used to find blockages.

This catheter has a special balloon that, once in position, is briefly inflated to open a blocked coronary artery. A metal mesh stent might then be inserted into the artery to keep it open long term, restoring blood flow to the heart. Depending on your condition, you might get a stent coated with a slow-releasing medication to help keep your artery open.


Coronary artery bypass surgery. In some cases, doctors perform emergency bypass surgery at the time of a heart attack. If possible, however, you might have bypass surgery after your heart has had time — about three to seven days — to recover from your heart attack.

Bypass surgery involves sewing veins or arteries in place beyond a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, allowing blood flow to the heart to bypass the narrowed section.

Once blood flow to your heart is restored and your condition is stable, you're likely to remain in the hospital for several days.
Cardiac rehabilitation

Most hospitals offer programs that might start while you're in the hospital and continue for weeks to a couple of months after you return home. Cardiac rehabilitation programs generally focus on four main areas — medications, lifestyle changes, emotional issues and a gradual return to your normal activities.

It's extremely important to participate in this program. People who attend cardiac rehab after a heart attack generally live longer and are less likely to have another heart attack or complications from the heart attack. If cardiac rehab is not recommended during your hospitalization, ask your doctor about it.

    What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid



    Someone having a heart attack may experience any or all of the following:
    • Uncomfortable pressure
    • fullness or squeezing pain in the center of the chest
    • Discomfort or pain spreading beyond the chest to the shoulders, neck, jaw, teeth, or one or both arms, or occasionally upper abdomen
    • Shortness of breath
    • Lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
    • Sweating
    • Nausea

    Heart attack symptoms

    A heart attack occurs when there is no supply of blood to the heart. The blockage is most is due to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances, which form a plaque in the arteries that feed the heart. 



    Many people think the warning signs of a heart attack are sudden, like a movie heart attack, where someone clutches his chest and falls over. A real heart attack may look and feel very different.


    Common heart attack signs and symptoms include:


    • Pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back
    • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain
    • Shortness of breath
    • Cold sweat
    • Fatigue
    • Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness

    Heart attack symptoms vary




    Not everybody who have heart attacks have the same signs and symptoms. Some have slight pain; others have more excessive pain. Some don't have any symptoms; for others, the primary signal may be sudden cardiac arrest. However, the more symptoms you got, the greater are the chance you're having a coronary heart attack.


    Some heart attack strike suddenly, but many people have warning signs and symptoms hours, days or perhaps weeks in advance. The earliest caution is probably recurrent chest pain or stress (angina) that's brought on by exertion and relieved by way of relaxation.which is caused by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the heart.

    How to Stop Heart Attack Immediately



    Put Time on Your Side: responding quickly can save lives. If given fast after signs, clot-busting and artery-establishing medications can prevent a coronary heart attack. The longer you wait for treatment, the more possibilities of survival goes down and damage to the heart is goes up. Most of the people who die from heart attacks do so within the first hour after symptoms begin.
    What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid

    What to Do Before Paramedics Arrive



    • Try to keep the person calm, and have them sit or lie down.
    • If the person is not allergic to aspirin, have them chew and swallow a baby aspirin. (It works faster when chewed and not swallowed whole.)
    • If the person stops breathing, you or someone else who’s qualified should perform CPR right away. If you don't know CPR, the 911 operator can help you until EMS personnel arrive.
    • Be Prepared

    Nobody plans on having a coronary heart attack. It’s good to be prepared. Steps you can take before signs begin:

    • Memorize the list of heart attack symptoms and warning signs.
    • Remember that you need to call 911 within 5 minutes of when they begin.
    • Talk to family and friends about the warning signs and the importance of calling 911 immediately.
    • Know your risk factors and do what you can to reduce them.
    • Create a heart attack survival plan that includes information about medicines you’re taking, your allergies, your doctor's number, and people to contact in case you go to the hospital. Keep this information in your wallet.
    • Arrange to have someone care for your dependents if an emergency happens.
    If you think someone is having a heart attack do this immediately to save a life:

    Heart Attack Treatment First Aid



    • Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm.
    • Loosen any tight clothing.
    • Ask if the person takes any chest pain medicine, such as nitroglycerin, for a known heart condition, and help them take it.
    • If the pain does not go away promptly with rest or within 3 minutes of taking nitroglycerin, call for emergency medical help.
    • If the person is unconscious and unresponsive, call 911 (or your local emergency number), then begin CPR.
    • If an infant or child is unconscious and unresponsive, perform 1 minute of CPR, then call 911.

    What to do if you or someone else may be having a heart attack

    Call 911 or your local medical emergency number. Don't ignore or attempt to tough out the symptoms of a heart attack for more than five minutes. If you don't have access to emergency medical services, have a neighbor or a friend drive you to the nearest hospital. 



    Drive yourself only as a last resort, and realize that it places you and others at risk when you drive under these circumstances.

    Chew and swallow an aspirin, unless you are allergic to aspirin or have been told by your doctor never to take aspirin. But seek emergency help first, such as calling 911.



    Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed. If you think you're having a heart attack and your doctor has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as directed. Do not take anyone else's nitroglycerin, because that could put you in more danger.

    Begin CPR if the person is unconscious. If you're with a person who might be having a heart attack and he or she is unconscious, tell the 911 dispatcher or another emergency medical specialist. You may be advised to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If you haven't received CPR training, doctors recommend skipping mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and performing only chest compressions (about 100 per minute). The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.
    If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available and the person is unconscious, begin CPR while the device is retrieved and set up. Attach the device and follow instructions that will be provided by the AED after it has evaluated the person's condition.

    What to do if someone is having a Heart Attack - Heart Attack Treatment First Aid

    How to Prevent Congestive Heart Failure


    Your lifestyle affects your heart health. 


    The following steps can help you not only prevent but also recover from a heart attack:

    Avoid smoke. The most important thing you can do to improve your heart's health is to not smoke. Also, avoid being around secondhand smoke. If you need to quit, ask your doctor for help.

    Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. If one or both of these is high, your doctor can prescribe changes to your diet and medications. Ask your doctor how often you need to have your blood pressure and cholesterol levels monitored.

    Get regular medical checkups. Some of the major risk factors for heart attack — high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes — cause no symptoms early on. Your doctor can perform tests to check for these conditions and help you manage them, if necessary.



    Exercise regularly. Regular exercise helps improve heart muscle function after a heart attack and helps prevent a heart attack by helping you to control your weight, diabetes, cholesterol and blood pressure. Exercise needn't be vigorous. Walking 30 minutes a day, five days a week can improve your health.

    Maintain a healthy weight. Excess weight strains your heart and can contribute to high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes.



    Eat a heart-healthy diet. Saturated fat, trans fats and cholesterol in your diet can narrow arteries to your heart, and too much salt can raise blood pressure. Eat a heart-healthy diet that includes lean proteins, such as fish and beans, plenty of fruits and vegetables and whole grains.

    Manage diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to your heart. Regular exercise, eating well and losing weight all help to keep blood sugar levels at more-desirable levels. Many people also need medication to manage their diabetes.

    Control stress. Reduce stress in your day-to-day activities. Rethink workaholic habits and find healthy ways to minimize or deal with stressful events in your life.
    If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.

    Heart Attack Treatment at a Hospital


    Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissue deteriorates or dies. Restoring blood flow quickly helps prevent heart damage.


    Medications given to treat a heart attack at hospital might include:

    Aspirin. The 911 operator might tell you to take aspirin, or emergency medical personnel might give you aspirin immediately. Aspirin reduces blood clotting, thus helping maintain blood flow through a narrowed artery.

    Thrombolytics. These drugs, also called clotbusters, help dissolve a blood clot that's blocking blood flow to your heart. The earlier you receive a thrombolytic drug after a heart attack, the greater the chance you'll survive and have less heart damage.



    Antiplatelet agents. Emergency room doctors may give you other drugs known as platelet aggregation inhibitors to help prevent new clots and keep existing clots from getting larger.
    Other blood-thinning medications. You'll likely be given other medications, such as heparin, to make your blood less "sticky" and less likely to form clots. Heparin is given intravenously or by an injection under your skin.

    Pain relievers. You might be given a pain reliever, such as morphine.
    Nitroglycerin. This medication, used to treat chest pain (angina), can help improve blood flow to the heart by widening (dilating) the blood vessels.

    Beta blockers. These medications help relax your heart muscle, slow your heartbeat and decrease blood pressure, making your heart's job easier. Beta blockers can limit the amount of heart muscle damage and prevent future heart attacks.
    ACE inhibitors. These drugs lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart.
    Statins. These drugs help control your blood cholesterol.
    Surgical and other procedures

    In addition to medications, you might have one of these procedures to treat your heart attack:

    Coronary angioplasty and stenting. In this procedure, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), doctors insert a long, thin tube (catheter) that's passed through an artery in your groin or wrist to a blocked artery in your heart. If you've had a heart attack, this procedure is often done immediately after a cardiac catheterization, a procedure used to find blockages.

    This catheter has a special balloon that, once in position, is briefly inflated to open a blocked coronary artery. A metal mesh stent might then be inserted into the artery to keep it open long term, restoring blood flow to the heart. Depending on your condition, you might get a stent coated with a slow-releasing medication to help keep your artery open.


    Coronary artery bypass surgery. In some cases, doctors perform emergency bypass surgery at the time of a heart attack. If possible, however, you might have bypass surgery after your heart has had time — about three to seven days — to recover from your heart attack.

    Bypass surgery involves sewing veins or arteries in place beyond a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, allowing blood flow to the heart to bypass the narrowed section.

    Once blood flow to your heart is restored and your condition is stable, you're likely to remain in the hospital for several days.
    Cardiac rehabilitation

    Most hospitals offer programs that might start while you're in the hospital and continue for weeks to a couple of months after you return home. Cardiac rehabilitation programs generally focus on four main areas — medications, lifestyle changes, emotional issues and a gradual return to your normal activities.

    It's extremely important to participate in this program. People who attend cardiac rehab after a heart attack generally live longer and are less likely to have another heart attack or complications from the heart attack. If cardiac rehab is not recommended during your hospitalization, ask your doctor about it.

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